Independent and cutting-edge analysis on global affairs
aaMarc Rotenberg

Marc Rotenberg is the President and Founder of the Center for AI and Digital Policy. He is a leading expert in data protection, open government, and AI policy. He has served on many international advisory panels for digital policy, including the OECD AI Group of Experts. Marc helped draft the Universal Guidelines for AI, a widely endorsed human rights framework for the regulation of Artificial Intelligence. Marc is the author of several textbooks including the 2020 AI Policy Sourcebook and Privacy and Society (West Academic 2016). He teaches privacy law and the GDPR at Georgetown Law. Marc has spoken frequently before the US Congress, the European Parliament, the OECD, UNESCO, judicial conferences, and international organizations. Marc has directed international comparative law studies on Privacy and Human Rights, Cryptography and Liberty, and Artificial Intelligence and Democratic Values. Marc is a graduate of Harvard College, Stanford Law School, and Georgetown Law.

abMerve Hickok

Merve Hickok is the Chair of the Board of Directors and Senior Research Director of the Center for AI and Digital Policy. She is also the founder of She is a leading expert on Artificial Intelligence Ethics. Her work on AI is focused on bias, social justice, Diversity, Equity & Inclusion, public benefit and participatory development and governance. Merve is a Data Ethics lecturer at University of Michigan, School of Information; Member of the Founding Editorial Board at Springer Nature AI & Ethics journal; Advisor at The Civic Data Library of Context; Member at IEEE work groups on AI standard setting and Open Community for Ethics in Autonomous and Intelligent Systems (OCEANIS) alongside national institutions. Merve's work intersects both AI ethics and AI policy and regulation. She has been recognized by several organizations - most recently as one of the 100 Brilliant Women in AI Ethics™ 2021. Merve is also a member of the Board of Directors at Northern Nevada International Center. NNIC serves as a refugee resettlement agency to help displaced persons and victims of human trafficking, as well as organizing programs for international delegations through the U.S. Department of State and other federal agencies. It is among the top organizations in the United States hosting over a dozen U.S. Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs large exchange programs.

acAmbassador James F. Jeffrey

James F. Jeffrey is Chair of the Middle East Program at the Wilson Center, Washington, D.C. Ambassador Jeffrey is the former Special Envoy to the Global Coalition To Defeat ISIS. He previously served as US Ambassador to Turkey from October 2008 – July 2010 and Iraq between 2010-2012. Prior to that, he served on detail to the National Security Council as the Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor. Prior to this, he served as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs at the Department of State. His earlier appointments include service as senior advisor on Iraq to the secretary of state; chargé d'affaires and deputy chief of mission in Baghdad; deputy chief of mission in Ankara; and ambassador in Albania.

adAmbassador Matthew J. Bryza

Matthew J. Bryza is CEO of Lamor Turkey as well as a board member of the Jamestown Foundation and Turcas Petrol. Bryza is also a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Eurasia Center and Global Energy Center of the Atlantic Council. Additionally, he serves as a consultant on business and democratic development and is a board member of several private companies. Previously, Bryza had a 23-year career as a US diplomat, his last post was to Azerbaijan as US Ambassador.  From 2005 to 2009, Ambassador Bryza served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Europe and Eurasia, with responsibility for the South Caucasus, Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, and Eurasian energy.  Ambassador Bryza simultaneously served as the US Co-Chair of the OSCE’s Minsk Group mediating the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, and as US mediator of the Cyprus, South Ossetia, and Abkhazia conflicts.

aeFrederick Kempe

Frederick Kempe is the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Atlantic Council. Kempe is an award-winning journalist, best-selling author, columnist and a regular commentator on television and radio both in Europe and the United States. Prior to assuming his position at the Atlantic Council, Kempe spent nearly thirty years in the Wall Street Journal, where he was the longest-serving editor and associate publisher ever of the Wall Street Journal Europe, running the global Wall Street Journal's editorial operations in Europe and the Middle East.

afaTayfun Bayazıt

Tayfun Bayazıt began his banking career with Citibank in 1983. He then worked as a Senior Vice President and Member of the Executive Board at Yapı Kredi, CEO at Interbank, and President and CEO of Banque de Commerce et de Placements S.A. in Switzerland. In 1999, he was appointed as the Deputy Chairman of the Board of Doğan Holding and the Executive Director of Dışbank. In 2001, he assumed the position of CEO at Dışbank. He was appointed as Chairman of the Board of Directors in 2003 and was asked to continue as CEO of Fortis Turkey in July 2005, after Fortis bought the majority shares of Dışbank. He was subsequently elected Chairman of the Board of Fortis in 2006. Bayazıt returned to Yapı Kredi in 2007 as CEO, a joint venture of Yapı Kredi, UniCredit and Koç Group, and was elected Chairman of the Board of Directors in 2 years. He was the chairman of all Yapı Kredi subsidiaries for four years, including Yapı Kredi Insurance (property and accident insurance) and Yapı Kredi Emeklilik (personal pension and life insurance). Bayazıt left this post in August 2011 to set up his own firm “Bayazit Consulting Services.” He was then elected as the Country Chairman for Marsh McLennan Group (Marsh, Mercer and Oliver Wyman) in September 2012 and serves on the board of directors of Hepsiburada (e-commerce, Nasdaq), MLP Care (healthcare) and Coca Cola Icecek (bottling and distribution) as an independent board member. He is also a board member at Aydem Energy and Boyner companies. Bayazıt is a member of the High Advisory Board of the TUSIAD (Turkish Industry and Business Association) , and takes an active role in non-governmental organizations such as the World Resources Institute and the Corporate Governance Association of Turkey (TKYD). He is also a member of the Board of Trustees of Boğaziçi University and the Education Volunteers Foundation of Turkey (TEGV).

afCarl Bildt

Carl Bildt is currently Co-Chair of the European Council on Foreign Relations. He served as Sweden's Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2014. Bildt was the leader of the liberal conservative Moderate Party from 1986 to 1999, and Prime Minister of Sweden from 1991 to 1994. He was also a mediator in the Balkan conflict, serving as the European Union’s Special Envoy to the Former Yugoslavia as well as the first EU High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1995 and 1997.  From 1999 to 2001, he served as the United Nations Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for the Balkans.

agAmbassador Marc Pierini

Marc Pierini is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe, where his research focuses on developments in the Middle East and Turkey from a European perspective. Ambassador Pierini was a career EU diplomat from December 1976 to April 2012. He was EU ambassador and head of delegation to Turkey (2006–2011) and ambassador to Tunisia and Libya (2002–2006), Syria (1998–2002), and Morocco (1991–1995). He also served as the first coordinator for the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, or the Barcelona Process, from 1995 to 1998 and was the main negotiator for the release of the Bulgarian hostages from Libya from 2004 to 2007. Pierini served as counselor in the cabinet of two European commissioners: Claude Cheysson, from 1979 to 1981, and Abel Matutes, from 1989 to 1991. Pierini is a member of the International Council of the Museum of European and Mediterranean Civilizations in Marseille.

ahProf. Dr. Üstün Ergüder

Üstün Ergüder is an Emeritus Professor at Sabancı University, as well as, chair of the Executive Committee of the Education Reform Initiative and the Board of Trustees of the Third Sector Foundation of Turkey. Prof. Dr. Ergüder is also a member of the Executive Board of Vehbi Koç Foundation. He served as the Rector of Boğaziçi University for two consecutive terms between 1992 to 2000 and was the founding director of the Istanbul Policy Center at Sabancı University between 2001 to 2010. Ergüder is also the former President of the Council of Magna Charta Observatory of Academic Freedom and Institutional Autonomy located in Bologna, Italy.

aiAmbassador Richard Burt

Richard Burt is managing partner at McLarthy Associates and has led the firm’s work in Europe & Eurasia since 2007. Ambassador Burt is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a board member of the Center for the National Interest, and a member of the executive board of the Atlantic Council. He also serves as senior adviser to Center for Strategic & International Studies. Prior to that, Ambassador Burt served as ambassador and chief negotiator in the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks with the former Soviet Union, and as US ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany from 1985 to 1989, during the preliminary stages of German reunification. Before serving in Germany, he was assistant secretary of state for European and Canadian affairs from 1983 to 1985. Burt has also worked as the national security correspondent for the New York Times and at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London.

ajAhmet C. Bozer

Ahmet C. Bozer is President Emeritus of the American Turkish Friendship Council and a non-executive board member of Coca-Cola International. Previously he served as the Executive Vice President of Coca-Cola International, which consists of the Company’s Asia Pacific, Europe, Eurasia & Africa, and Latin America operations. Prior to that Bozer served as the President of Coca-Cola International Corp at The Coca-Cola Company and Coca-Cola India Private Limited. Before joining Coca-Cola, Bozer served as President of Eurasia & Africa Group, where he led the Company’s business activities in more than 90 countries. Bozer also spent five years in various audit, consultancy, and management roles with Coopers & Lybrand in Atlanta. A founding member of The Coca-Cola Turkey Life Plus Foundation, Bozer also previously served as head of the US-Pakistan Business Council. He sits on the Company’s Public Policy and Corporate Reputation Council and is a member of The Coca-Cola Foundation Board.

akDr. Ian O. Lesser

Ian O. Lesser is vice president for foreign policy at The German Marshall Fund (GMF) of the United States and a member of GMF’s executive team. He also serves as executive director of the Transatlantic Center and GMF’s Brussels Office. Prior to joining GMF, Dr. Lesser was a public policy scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, and vice president and director of studies at the Pacific Council on International Policy. He came to the Pacific Council from RAND, where he spent over a decade as a senior analyst and research manager. From 1994-95, he was a member of the Secretary’s Policy Planning Staff at the U.S. Department of State, responsible for Turkey, Southern Europe, North Africa, and the multilateral track of the Middle East peace process. Dr. Lesser is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the International Institute for Strategic Studies, and the Pacific Council on International Policy. He serves on the advisory boards of the NATO Defense College Foundation, the International Spectator, and Insight Turkey.

alPeter Van Praagh

Peter Van Praagh is the founding President of Halifax International Security Forum. Van Praagh previously served as the Senior Director for Foreign Policy at the Marshall Fund of the United States. He also served as the Deputy Vice President of Programs at the National Endowment for Democracy in Washington, D.C. Between 2006 and 2007, he served as the Senior Policy Advisor to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Canada.

amProf. Dr. Emre Gönensay

Emre Gönensay is the founder representative of the Hisar Foundation and a former Professor of economics at Işık University. Previously, Prof. Dr. Gönensay served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey in 1996 and as a Member of Parliament for Antalya from 1994 to 1999. Between 1994 and 1995 he served as the Chief Advisor to the Prime Minister in charge of coordinating the Turkish Pipelines Policy. After exiting politics in 1999, he started working as a consultant in the private sector. Throughout his professional life, he has worked in Koç Holding, Enka Holding, Chemical Mitsui Bank, and Caspian Energy, holding various positions ranging from advisor to board member.

anEka Tkeshelashvili

Eka Tkeshelashvili is currently Head of Programs at the European Anti-Corruption Initiative to Ukraine. Ms.Tkeshelashvili previously served as the President of the Georgian Institute for Strategic Studies. Prior to this, she was Vice Prime-Minister, State Minister for Reintegration between 2010 and 2012. She previously served as the National Security Adviser to the President of Georgia and as the Secretary of the National Security Council between 2008-2010 heading the National Strategic Review Process. Earlier she held the position of Minister of Foreign Affairs. She also worked as Prosecutor General and Minister of Justice. Ms. Tkeshelashvili also held the position of Chairperson of Tbilisi Appeals Court and was member of the High Council of Justice of Georgia. Before joining the government, Ms. Tkeshelashvili was a Deputy Chief of Party at IRIS Georgia implementing USAID rule of law projects.

aoDr. Gerard Libaridian

Gerard Libaridian is a scholar and writer, he was, for eleven years, Alex Manoogian Professor of Modern Armenian History at the University of Michigan, until his retirement in 2012. From 1991 to 1997, Prof. Dr. Libaridian served as adviser, and then senior adviser to the former President of Armenia, Levon Ter-Petrossian. He also served as First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1993 to 1994. He is a founding member of the Zoryan Institute. Prof. Dr. Libaridian taught previously at a number of universities, and has lectured and written extensively on Armenia-Turkey and Armenian-Turkish relations. His most recent works are The Challenge of Statehood and Modern Armenia.

apProf. Dr. İlter Turan

İlter Turan is the President of the International Political Science Association and Emeritus Professor of Political Science in the Department of International Relations of Istanbul Bilgi University, with previous positions at Istanbul and Koç Universities. Prof. Dr. Turan is the author of books and articles in English and Turkish on Comparative Politics, Turkish Politics and Turkish Foreign Policy. He was Rector of Bilgi University from 1998 to 2001. Previously, Turan served as president of the Turkish Political Science Association, as a member of the Executive Committee and as chair of the IPSA Committee on Research and Training. He also served as Program Chair for the 21st IPSA World Congress of Political Science held in Santiago, Chile in 2009. He is a columnist for the daily Dünya and serves on the board of several foundations and corporations.

arSoli Özel

Soli Özel is a professor of International Relations at Kadir Has University in Istanbul. He is also an advisor to the Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association (TÜSIAD) on foreign policy issues. He has guest lectured at Georgetown, Harvard, Tufts and other US universities and has taught at UC Santa Cruz, SAIS, the University of Washington, and the Hebrew University. Özel was a fellow of St. Anthony’s College, Oxford and a visiting senior scholar at the EU Institute for Security Studies in Paris. Professor Özel has been a Fisher Family Fellow of the “Future of Diplomacy Program” at the Belfer Center of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. In 2013, he was a Keyman fellow and a visiting lecturer at Northwestern University. Soli Özel is on the board of directors of International Alert and a member of the European Council on Foreign Relations.

asHikmet Çetin

Hikmet Çetin is a retired Turkish politician, who began his career when he was elected to the Turkish Parliament in 1977 as a member of the Republican People’s Party (CHP), and was later appointed as deputy prime minister in 1978. He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs between 1991 and 1994 and as the Speaker of Parliament from 1997 to 1999. In 2003, Çetin was appointed as the NATO Senior Civilian Representative for Afghanistan and has served in Kabul from 2004 to 2006. Presently, he is a member of the Executive Board for the European Leadership Network (ELN).

atProf. Dr. Şule Kut

Şule Kut has been the Rector of Okan University since 2010. Prior to this, Prof. Dr. Kut worked at Istanbul Bilgi University as a professor of International Relations, with a focus on Turkish politics and the Balkans. She was also the Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, and from 1999 to 2005 she was the Vice-Rector of the University.

auKadri Gürsel

Kadri Gürsel is a columnist for Diken and Al-Monitor. His writing focuses primarily on Turkish foreign policy, the Kurdish question, and political Islam. Gürsel joined the Milliyet publishing group in 1997 where he oversaw the foreign news desk as an editor. Gürsel also served as the vice editor in chief of the weekly news magazine Artı-Haber under Milliyet Media Group. Prior his posts in Milliyet, he was a correspondent for Agence France-Presse between 1993 and 1997. He is an executive board member of the International Press Institute.

avDr. Kemal Derviş

Kemal Derviş is a Senior Fellow in the Global Economy and Development Program at the Brookings Institute. Previously, Dr. Derviş was Vice President and Director of the program from April 2009 to November 2017. Formerly Derviş was the head of the United Nations Development Programme between 2005 to 2009. Additionally, he was also the Chair of the United Nations Development Group. From 2001 to 2002, he served as the Minister of Economic Affairs and Treasury, without party affiliation. Derviş also served in the Turkish Parliament as a member of the Republican People’s Party (CHP) representing Istanbul from 2002 to 2005. Before entering politics, Dr. Derviş held various World Bank positions including Division Chief for Industrial and Trade Strategy, Director for the Central Europe Department, Vice President of the World Bank for the Middle East and North Africa Region, and Vice President for Poverty Reduction and Economic Management. Derviş is a Member of the Sabancı University International Board of Overseers and a Member of the Executive Board of Istanbul Policy Center.

awEkmeleddin İhsanoğlu

Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu is an academic, diplomat, and politician. Prof. Dr. İhsanoğlu was Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation from 2004 to 2013 and served as the founding Director General of the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture, an intergovernmental research center and subsidiary organ of the OIC from 1980 to 2004. Previously, he was the founder and Head of the Department of History of Science at the Faculty of Letters of Istanbul University from 1984 to 2000. Prof. Dr. İhsanoğlu has also taught and lectured in many leading universities in Europe and USA, and has published books, articles and papers on science, history of science, and international relations. İhsanoğlu is also a member of Parliament and a former presidential candidate in Turkey's 2014 presidential election.

axAmbassador Faruk Loğoğlu

O. Faruk Loğoğlu retired from public service in 2006 after 35 years in the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He served as Counselor at the Permanent Mission of Turkey to the United Nations in New York between 1980-1984 and as Consul General in Hamburg, Germany between 1986-1989. Dr. Loğoğlu worked as Deputy Director General, then as Special Advisor to the Foreign Minister in Ankara between 1989- 1993 and was appointed as Turkey’s Ambassador to Denmark and subsequently transferred to Azerbaijan. He was appointed Deputy Undersecretary for multilateral political affairs in 1998 after his return from Baku. He then served as Undersecretary of the Foreign Ministry from 2000 until his posting as Ambassador to the United States in 2001, where he stayed until the end of 2005. Dr. Loğoğlu served as President of the Eurasian Strategic Studies Center from 2006 to 2008. Previously, Ambassador Loğoğlu was the Deputy Chairman of the Turkish National Commission for UNESCO. He was the Vice-Chairman of the Republican People’s Party (CHP) in charge of foreign relations between 2011-2014 and continues his duties as a member of parliament.

ayAmbassador Namık Tan

Namık Tan is Executive Board Member of the Turkey-US Business Council (TAİK) and a member of the board of STFA Group. Ambassador Tan served as the Ambassador of Turkey to the United States from 2010 to 2014. Prior to this appointment, Ambassador Tan was Deputy Undersecretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, responsible for bilateral political affairs and public diplomacy. He was previously Ambassador of Turkey to Israel from 2007 to 2009.

azaDilek Hanif

Dilek Hanif, a true Turkish fashion pioneer who through her creative, brave and visionary personality has been able to translate her Anatolian cultural heritage into the world fashion scene. She was born in Istanbul in 1962. Her interest in fashion started when at a very young age she started helping with her parent’s textile business. Her father is Lütfü Demirtok, an illusionist who became famous with the name of Abracadabra. Her interest in fashion started in her early ages while she was helping her family business of textile. She got her education in Erenköy Kız Lisesi. She attended courses on charcoal pencil, design study, and fabric dyeing in Mimar Sinan Universtiy to develop herself in as many spheres as possible. She established her first brand, the Dilek Hanif line, as early as 1990 and entered the international fashion world with her first Haute Couture fashion show in 2002 in the beautiful and historical setting of the Aya İrini Church in 2002. In 2003, she was awarded Woman Fashion Designer of the Year with her spring-summer collection where she used the traditional needle embroidered figures.

azMustafa Aydın

Mustafa Aydın is a Professor of International Relations at Kadir Has University. He has also been the President of the International Relations Council of Turkey since 2004. Additionally, he is an executive board member of the World Council for Middle Eastern Studies, OECD’s International Management of Higher Education Programme, as well as a member of the European Academy of Sciences and Art. Previously, Prof. Dr. Aydın was Head of the Department of International Relations at the TOBB University of Economics and Technology; Director of International Policy Research Institute of Ankara; member of the Economy and Foreign Policy Study Group of the President’s Office; and Board Member of the strategic research centers of both the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Turkish Armed Forces.

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Foreword How much time is twenty years? Long enough to inspire, or short enough to be unnoticeable? Turkish Policy Quarterly (TPQ) was published for the first time in February 2002. We are celebrating its 20th anniversary with this issue. While much has changed since then, we believe the values that guide TPQ are as relevant and important as ever. There was then and there is now a chance for us all to...