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For Turkey and Armenia, normalization and reconciliation can be seen as two sides of the same coin. A critical and achievable breakthrough would be the opening of the international border and the establishment of full diplomatic relations between the two countries. However, meaningful progress at the inter-state level does not seem probable in the immediate future given the heighted political sensitivities around the historic commemorations of this year. Nonetheless, the authors argue that informal normalization is occurring. Across Turkish and Armenian societies, the “thaw” is expanding, and appears to be sanctioned by both governments. For the deeper process of reconciliation, both countries should support smaller, symbolic efforts that allow for dialogue and understanding.

CONTRIBUTOR
Fiona Hill
Fiona Hill

Dr. Fiona Hill is Director of the Center on the United States and Europe (CUSE) and a Senior Fellow in the Foreign Policy program at the Brookings Institution.

Kemal Kirişçi
Kemal Kirişçi
Andrew Moffatt
Andrew Moffatt

Andrew Moffatt is Associate Director of the CUSE.

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From the Desk of the Editor During the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals and governments across the globe have been reminded of the value of human life and the delicacy of human psychology. Societies have been forced to conform to governments’ speedy decisions to prevent the spread of the virus, and individuals—from the most vulnerable to the most well-off —were forced to self-isolate. The isolation...
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