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Afghanistan’s political methods and skills are born out of a perception that almost everyone possesses very limited opportunities and resources, and that perception produces a political culture that one must do whatever it takes to survive. That culture of “amoral familism” ironically offers almost unlimited opportunities for individuals to make a deal about almost anything. So, the question remains: Will the Afghan leaders be able to use their traditional skills to manage the culture of unrestrained deal-making? Can they can piece together one factional linkage after another, and create an ever growing political stability and economic growth?


Bob Spencer
Bob Spencer
Armando Geller
Armando Geller
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Foreword Following the violent dissolution of the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, there had been a shared sense of hope for a more peaceful future for the European continent. Unfortunately, this comfortability disappeared after Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered his troops to march against the Ukrainian forces throughout the border on 24 February 2022. This marked a turning point not only for the...