AKP (the Justice and Development Party) adeptly uses foreign policy to advance its domestic drive for power. It favors Muslim solidarity, muscular nationalism, and mercantilism to outflank more Islamist and nationalist political opponents. And it favors them even when the choice puts Turkey at odds with the United States, a NATO ally, and the European Union, which it officially aspires to join. These preferences are evident in policies toward Turkey’s Arab neighbors and Iran and toward Israel, Cyprus, and Armenia. Recognizing the political motivations for AKP’s foreign policies better might enable Western governments to rise to the challenges they pose.