The Comprehensive Peace Agreement that ended the 22-year civil war, the longest in recent African history, between the North and South Sudan, had its fifth anniversary on January 9. The peace agreement did not solve all of the structural problems, yet it paved the way for a more peaceful and democratic Sudan. The next 12 months will be crucial in determining Sudan’s political future. A number of unresolved issues threaten the fragile peace while the elections in April 2010 or the secession referendum in January 2011 could trigger another war. In this light the EU needs to adjust its approach and presence in Sudan both institutionally and politically.