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The Moscow Patriarchate and the Istanbul Greek Orthodox Patriarchate are both transnational actors that have a claim of leadership over World Orthodoxy. The Post-Soviet era brought new challenges to both churches and specific goals: to maintain the integrity of their canonical territory and to gain influence within the Orthodox Church. This article examines the uneasy relation of Istanbul and Moscow under the leadership of two dynamic church leaders Bartholomeos I and Alexei II with special reference to the crisis over Estonia and Ukraine.


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Asli Bilge
Asli Bilge
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Foreword After the violent dissolution of the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, there had been a shared sense of hope for a more peaceful future for the European continent. Unfortunately, this comfortability disappeared after Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered his troops to march against the Ukrainian forces throughout the border on 24 February 2022. This marked a turning point not only for the region...