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 This article investigates the effects of instability on Turkish and Iraqi bilateral foreign trade. It focuses on Turkish exports to Iraq and their fluctuations before, during and after periods of regional and global instability. We find the effects of both global and regional instability to be positive on Turkish exports to Iraq. Based on our results, trade costs of instability in Iraq need to be evaluated carefully. Policy implications suggest that a long-term and sustained stability in Iraq might be preferred to a hasty and ad hoc solution.

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Ayla Oğuş
Ayla Oğuş
Can Erbil
Can Erbil
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Foreword TPQ’s Summer issue, NATO in 2020 and Beyond: New Strategies and Frontiers, offers insights on the Alliance’s current challenges and future security trends, while offering a look into Euro-Atlantic relations in the coming decade. It is clear that as the international security landscape is rapidly changing, member states’ capabilities, resilience, and most importantly, their...
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