This article discusses religion in Turkey within the context of recent domestic and international developments. The main argument is the inapplicability of the Cold War perceptions on religion in Turkey. Accordingly, different political groups and movements have been in search of a new definition for the role of Islam in domestic politics. After comparing the Cold War and post-Cold War paradigms on religion, the article ends up with the special case of the Turkish left with a special reference to religionThe end of the Cold War paved the way for unprecedented developments around the globe. The effects of the fall of the Soviet Union were not experienced similarly or simultaneously in all places. In other words, there was a delay in many non-Western states, and accordingly several states are still acting on a Cold War mentality. Thus, it is logically reliable to categorize states according to their unique experience in terms of entering the post-Cold War era. For example, many third world states resisted the great changes that the end of Cold War introduced, in contrast to the rapid changes undertaken by ex-Soviet Bloc Western states. For the non-Western states, the developments that came out by the end of the Cold War threatened their political systems. While the Cold War system helped them protect non-democratic regimes, the post-Cold War era truly transformed the nature of international system into one that threatens autocracies. The rise of concepts such as human rights, democracy, market economy and humanitarian intervention have given…Please click here to read the text in full.