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Towards the end of the last century the ideologies and conflicts defining the 20th century came to end. As a matter of fact, the 20th century came to a premature end with the collapse of the Berlin Wall. What essentially gave direction to the history and way of life, social and economic, of the 20th century? Throughout the century, a state bureaucratic left wing model on one hand, and a totalitarian right wing one on the other, threatened the realm of freedom. However, towards the end of the century both the totalitarian right and the statist left collapsed and what I call "social liberal synthesis" came into being. This did not come easy, for there were quite a few wars and millions of people lost their lives. There were conflicts between the two sides and those more tolerant and believing in peace and democracy prevailed in spite of all these threats.
 


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Kemal Derviş
Kemal Derviş
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Foreword Following the violent dissolution of the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, there had been a shared sense of hope for a more peaceful future for the European continent. Unfortunately, this comfortability disappeared after Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered his troops to march against the Ukrainian forces throughout the border on 24 February 2022. This marked a turning point not only for the...
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