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Towards the end of the last century the ideologies and conflicts defining the 20th century came to end. As a matter of fact, the 20th century came to a premature end with the collapse of the Berlin Wall. What essentially gave direction to the history and way of life, social and economic, of the 20th century? Throughout the century, a state bureaucratic left wing model on one hand, and a totalitarian right wing one on the other, threatened the realm of freedom. However, towards the end of the century both the totalitarian right and the statist left collapsed and what I call "social liberal synthesis" came into being. This did not come easy, for there were quite a few wars and millions of people lost their lives. There were conflicts between the two sides and those more tolerant and believing in peace and democracy prevailed in spite of all these threats.
 


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Kemal Derviş
Kemal Derviş
From the Desk of the Editor TPQ’s Winter issue examines global trade dynamics—from US-China tensions to the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to US tariff threats towards the EU. Chief among the issues generating a high degree of economic uncertainty is the US-China trade conflict and the magnitude of the emerging global fallout. Major changes are already afoot—namely a shift...
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