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Towards the end of the last century the ideologies and conflicts defining the 20th century came to end. As a matter of fact, the 20th century came to a premature end with the collapse of the Berlin Wall. What essentially gave direction to the history and way of life, social and economic, of the 20th century? Throughout the century, a state bureaucratic left wing model on one hand, and a totalitarian right wing one on the other, threatened the realm of freedom. However, towards the end of the century both the totalitarian right and the statist left collapsed and what I call "social liberal synthesis" came into being. This did not come easy, for there were quite a few wars and millions of people lost their lives. There were conflicts between the two sides and those more tolerant and believing in peace and democracy prevailed in spite of all these threats.
 


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Kemal Derviş
Kemal Derviş
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From the Desk of the Editor During the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals and governments across the globe have been reminded of the value of human life and the delicacy of human psychology. Societies have been forced to conform to governments’ speedy decisions to prevent the spread of the virus, and individuals—from the most vulnerable to the most well-off —were forced to self-isolate. The isolation...
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