Cultural diplomacy remains neglected as a tool of intercommunal relations in many parts of the world. In particular, the “classic” model of cultural diplomacy is ineffective in the post-communist area. This article argues that the source of this failure lies in the imposition by former communist regimes of the wrong understanding of the role of religion, history, and ethnic identity in society. This led to the emergence of many “cultural” conflicts after the abolishment of the communist monopoly on power. The author relates a number of reasons why Central European countries are particularly well placed to foster cultural diplomacy that could help resolve frozen conflicts in the former USSR and former Yugoslavia countries, and to bring Eastern European countries closer to the West.