As the Cold War’s domination of the geopolitics of the Middle East recedes, a new architecture is emerging, reminiscent of that of Europe in the 19th century. It is an architecture of mid-sized powers engaging in ever shifting alliances and covert and overt struggles to expand and protect their spheres of influence. Like in 19th century Europe, there is a strong connection between countries vying for influence and the cohesiveness of their national, ethnic, sectarian, and religious identities. Even though, in its immediate aftermath, the European “Spring of Nations” was a complete failure, ultimately the ideas that captured the imagination of a rising young population during the brief moment of the “Spring of Nations” triumphed. The ideals represented in the “Arab Spring” could also become a reality following long and painful convulsions of transformation.