Turkey demonstrated remarkable economic performance over the last decade. In order to meet the goals set for 2023, however, the Turkish economy must shift to a new paradigm in which human capital is the main driver of technological advancement and economic development. As figures show, the quality of a country’s education system plays a major role in that country’s economic performance, including GDP. As Turkey still remains far behind OECD levels in education, Turkish policy makers need to transform their approaches to education. Prioritization of K-12 and early childhood education (ECE), along with a broad consensus on a human rights-oriented education system, are vital if goals set for 2023 are to be reached.