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A decade or so ago, the questions of how to get the bulk of Azerbaijan’s oil and gas to Western markets led to historic decisions to build both the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) and the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum (BTE) export pipelines. The need for a dedicated line to carry Azerbaijani gas across Turkey to Southern and Central European markets has been consistently underlined by SOCAR and European counterparts alike. Now the partners developing Azerbaijan’s giant Shah Deniz gasfield are moving inexorably towards implementation of a massive production project, TANAP. There are still unsettled issues, however, such as which pipeline will carry the gas from Turkey onwards to Europe, and how the BTE segment will be upgraded.
 
CONTRIBUTOR
John M. Roberts
John M. Roberts

John M. Roberts is a UK-based Senior Fellow at the Atlantic Council's Eurasia Center and Global Energy Center. He is also a Senior Partner with Methinks Ltd, a consultancy specializing in the interrelationship between energy, economic development, and politics, and a member of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Group of Experts on Gas.

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Foreword Following the violent dissolution of the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, there had been a shared sense of hope for a more peaceful future for the European continent. Unfortunately, this comfortability disappeared after Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered his troops to march against the Ukrainian forces throughout the border on 24 February 2022. This marked a turning point not only for the...
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