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The day after revolution is never easy. Euphoria fades quickly; expectations are prone to quick frustration…Experience shows that change is never easy, and it never happens overnight. Instead of “transitions,” we should rather speak of “transformations.” Political change on the scale we saw in Eastern Europe and we are witnessing today in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya involves more than transition – it takes in all aspects of a State, its institutions and its society…Accordingly, UNESCO crafts the conditions to make development and democratic reforms more sustainable. We do not provide the hardware for peace but the software to make it meaningful...

Irina Bokova
Irina Bokova
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Foreword Following the violent dissolution of the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, there had been a shared sense of hope for a more peaceful future for the European continent. Unfortunately, this comfortability disappeared after Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered his troops to march against the Ukrainian forces throughout the border on 24 February 2022. This marked a turning point not only for the...