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The purpose of this paper is to describe internationalism and parochialism and link the impact of both using the examples provided by the European Union and the Middle East in a comparative manner. Then the role of public opinion with regard to these two approaches will be examined. The paper will conclude by arguing that examples from other regions of the world suggest that states in the Middle East are more likely to develop a secure environment for themselves if they could encourage a "democratic culture" in domestic politics to emerge. In the short run there is, of course,  the risk that a parochial public opinion encouraged by populism will become vociferous but this can be  controlled by active involvement of the EU in supporting  democratic transition. The benefits of globalization in terms of greater democracy, rule of law and economic prosperity will be a powerful motivating factor for such a public opinion or constituencies to emerge.

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Kemal Kirişçi
Kemal Kirişçi
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Foreword Following the violent dissolution of the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, there had been a shared sense of hope for a more peaceful future for the European continent. Unfortunately, this comfortability disappeared after Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered his troops to march against the Ukrainian forces throughout the border on 24 February 2022. This marked a turning point not only for the...
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