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This paper analyzes the implications of an ethnically divided Federation of Iraq. Regional implications, problems within “Kurdistan,” minority concerns and the revival of Islamism will be taken into consideration in analyzing security issues that arise vis-à-vis the creation of such an entity. Taken together, the study demonstrates that given U.S. and neighboring countries’ interests, a future Federation of Iraq based on ethnic lines would be ominous to the future of the Middle East. More specifically, the analysis argues that under the given circumstances a federation would likely lead to a war between Turkey and Iraqi Kurds, convergence of Iranian-Turkish security interests, a power vacuum susceptible to conflict, and the revival of Islamism.

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Yola Habif
Yola Habif
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Foreword After the violent dissolution of the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, there had been a shared sense of hope for a more peaceful future for the European continent. Unfortunately, this comfortability disappeared after Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered his troops to march against the Ukrainian forces throughout the border on 24 February 2022. This marked a turning point not only for the region...
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