Independent and cutting-edge analysis on Turkey and its neighborhood

The 26 November 1983 elections which ended the military administration did not ensure the swift return to democracy. Those who gained the right to rule the country after 26 November and the following general elections didn’t engage in the path of democratization. To them, ruling the country within the legal order of the 12th September Constitution was much easier.In spite of this situation, the opposition initiated by intellectuals and lawmakers gradually increased the demand for democracy. Civil society intensified its efforts to assemble. During this period the European Union, and European institutions in general( either formal or civilian) no doubt gave their support to the forces struggling for democracy in Turkey. However, it cannot be argued that such support was sufficient. The number of projects implemented using EU funds is very few. On the other hand, the tendency of EU and Member States officials to criticise human rights violations in Turkey on an ethnic basis was an inadequate approach to the democratization and human rights improvements issue. Human rights violations in Turkey do not solely concern the members of a specific ethnic group. And, among the NGOs, it is not only some “known” ones who are fighting to improve human rights in Turkey. This single-dimensioned approach occasionally has led the Turkish public opinion to react. No matter how far behind  civil society they stayed, political elites did not remain insensitive to civil requests for democratization and human rights improvement. From 1987 onwards, the 1982 Constitution was gradually amended towards more democratization.

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CONTRIBUTOR
Zafer Uskul
Zafer Uskul
From the Desk of the Editor This issue of TPQ takes up a myriad of issues that the Middle East is grappling with today: from protracted conflicts and the increasing complexity of proxy wars, to changing regional blocs and emerging powers. The Arab uprisings of 2011 remain an important fulcrum for the changing political landscape of the Middle East, and as many of our authors contend, the underlying problems and basic drivers...
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